Ionospheric effects on SAR imaging

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This project investigates the effects of ionosphere to the SAR imaging.  A homogeneous ionosphere is assumed in the analytical study.  The irregularity of the ionosphere is given by the two-parameter spectrum.  The SAR image resolution is obtained by computing the 3 dB width of the second order of the ambiguity function.  Results indicate a substantial change in azimuthal resolution caused by the ionosphere for a UHF-VHF SAR system.  The change of range resolution is negligible.  The analysis also indicates that Faraday rotation is significant for a UHF-VHF SAR system.  A numerical model is developed to further evaluate effects of the ionosphere on SAR imaging.  The horizontal structure of the ionosphere is described by the 1-D two-parameter spectrum.  The Chapman formula is used to generate the vertical profile of the electron density of the ionosphere. 

Real time global Total Electron Content (TEC) variation map by JPL


 Diagram of the numerical model structure





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